Country guides

Some countries have developed guides or manuals to provide guidance for various stakeholders on designing and implementing apprenticeships. While these are country-specific documents, they may offer examples of good practices that can be helpful or even replicable in other country contexts. Another key purpose of including references to these country guides is to facilitate the development of an effective learning environment for policy-makers in other countries, who can use these resources to develop similar, but customized, guides or manuals for their countries.

The following examples have been chosen specifically to present diverse practices from all regions of the world – the Americas, Europe, Asia and the Pacific and Africa. These examples also represent both developed and developing countries, as well as countries at different levels in terms of the implementation of apprenticeships.

  • In Barbados, the Vocational Training Board1 provides information to potential apprentices on the admission policy for apprenticeship programmes, wages and costs, as well as details of different apprenticeship programmes and training centres.
  • In Brazil, the Apprenticeship Learning Manual, 2 designed for employers, explains the law and sets out the rights and obligations of different stakeholders. It contains 69 sub-sections that seek to answer questions that an employer might have about the apprenticeship system. To ensure that both apprentices and employers fully benefit from the programme, it explains how the hiring of apprentices could be aligned with the interests of employers. It also states that employers should appoint mentors to supervise apprentices’ learning. In addition to specifying that the apprenticeship agreement should stipulate working hours and remuneration, the manual also addresses issues such as the age range of apprentices (between 14 and 24 years old) and the fact that only accredited institutions may provide off-the-job training.
  • In Costa Rica, ¿Cómo implementar la formación en la modalidad dual en Costa Rica? 3 is a guide designed for enterprises, detailing how companies can participate in apprenticeship programmes.
  • In El Salvador, INSAFORP provides general information for potential apprentices and interested enterprises on the requirements for participating in apprenticeship programmes, detailing costs and the different types of apprenticeship available.4
  • In Germany, Education and occupation – Rights and duties during vocational training5 provides guidance and information for apprentices and trainers, dual training facilitators, parents and teachers. It is intended as a guideline for orientation and implementation and provides information on a wide range of issues, such as: training occupations and regulations; teachers and trainers; apprenticeship agreements and the associated rights and duties of different parties to the agreement; examinations; lifelong learning; organization of vocational education and training at the state, chamber and federal level.
  • In India, the Operational framework for apprenticeship in India6 is a resource designed for key stakeholders in apprenticeships. It sets out the roles and responsibilities of different stakeholders, including government agencies at the national and state level. It explains the requirements of an apprenticeship agreement, funding arrangements and the different types of apprenticeships. A further document FAQs – Apprenticeship under the Apprentices Act, 19617 provides specific information about apprenticeship training and the National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme in India.
  • In Indonesia, the Guidelines for employers of apprenticeship programmes8 provides information on how companies can organize apprenticeship programmes.
  • In Ireland, the handbook Developing a national apprenticeship9 explains the steps involved in developing apprenticeships at the national level and is primarily aimed at assisting the consortia of employers and providers responsible for implementing new apprenticeships. The handbook is organized in three sections, including an introduction to the national apprenticeship system, an explanation of the key steps involved in developing an apprenticeship, and additional information and resources that support the development of national apprenticeships.
  • In Kenya, the National Industrial Training Authority’s website10 provides guidelines for all apprenticeship programmes, including basic, intermediate, advanced and graduate apprenticeship schemes. It provides an overview of each scheme, explains the rights and obligations of different stakeholders and contains sample documents, such as application forms for apprenticeship training, progress report forms and certificates.
  • In the Republic of Korea (hereafter South Korea), the publication Apprenticeships in Korea,11 produced by the Korea Research Institute for Vocational Education and Training (KRIVET), aims to provide an understanding of the country’s apprenticeship system. Apart from presenting an overview of the system’s current status and describing the development and operation of programmes, it also explores the challenges facing the system and offers strategies for improvement.
  • The Dual VET Apprenticeship flyer provides information to potential apprentices on the organization and delivery of apprenticeship programmes, eligibility criteria, assessment and certification, and career pathways. Furthermore, the Dual VET apprenticeship journey infographic presents in a simple way the apprenticeship journey from industry selection procedure to certification.
  • In New Zealand, the website of MITO,12 one of the Industry Training Organisations, provides information and guidance on apprenticeships. The Tertiary Education Commission has published the Code of good practice for New Zealand apprenticeships.13
  • In Pakistan, a handbook on apprenticeship14 has been developed by the British Council for the National Vocational and Technical Training Commission (NAVTTC) to provide detailed advice on what an apprenticeship entails and the potential benefits for employers, as well as specifying the requirements and responsibilities of the employer, the apprentice and the chosen training institution. It describes the apprenticeship journey from recruitment to assessment and certification and provides five case studies to illustrate good practices already taking place in Pakistan.
  • In South Africa, the merSETA, one of the 21 Sector and Education Authorities established to promote skills development, has produced comprehensive information and guidance on learnership15 and apprenticeship16 programmes. The website provides information on conditions of apprenticeship and implementation guidelines, and details the responsibilities of different stakeholders. In addition, an interactive online resource17 supports the implementation of apprenticeships. The digital guidelines describe the role and responsibility of each Stakeholder Group involved in the Centres of Specialization Programme and are presented as a user-friendly interactive online resource.
  • In Switzerland, the Apprenticeship handbook18 explains the law and provides information on the most important questions that might arise concerning apprenticeship. The handbook covers most aspects of apprenticeship, including the apprenticeship contract and its main legal provisions, the delivery of training by the employer, vocational school and professional organizations and the resources necessary to ensure its quality, as well as qualification and final examination procedures.
  • In the United States, the resource High school apprenticeships: A guide for starting successful programs19 is aimed at high schools, colleges, businesses, community organizations and others seeking to collaborate on high-quality apprenticeships in their communities. It covers the basic principles of building a high school apprenticeship programme and includes examples of programme strategies. The guide is organized around the four key elements necessary to make high school apprenticeship programmes successful: building strong partnerships, aligning programmes to industry needs, designing quality programmes and promoting apprentices’ success. Furthermore, A quick-start toolkit: Building registered apprenticeship programs20 provides a step-by-step guide to starting and registering an apprenticeship programme, from exploring the apprenticeship model as a workforce strategy to launching a new programme. An online training resource21 is available to provide further information about the apprenticeship model.

1 See for further details.

17 See for further details.